Eid-ul-Fitr is a day of thanksgiving and jubilation as it signifies the successful completion of the sacred month of Ramadan.
This festival marks the completion of an act of duty and devotion. It teaches us the lesson that real happiness arises from performing one’s duty and making sacrifices for a noble objective.
Fasting is one of the most significant pillars of Islam. The practice of fasting sublimates the inner self of man and inculcates discernment of the pangs and hardships which the poor and needy face. This feeling is awakened in all those, whether rich or poor, young or old, who observe fasting. It is the loftiest achievement of moral exercises which is celebrated with the greatest zest and verve on the day of Eid-ul-Fitr.
All kinds of spiritual adorations during the sacred month of Ramadan are in celebration of the revelation of the last and perfect message of Allah to humanity, for the limitless and vast favour on mankind in the shape of the Glorious Qur’an and its implication in the dedication and devotion in the month of Ramadan to which the Divine Book had led. Says the Qur’an: Allah has revealed to you the Book and Wisdom and taught you what you did not know before. Allah’s goodness to you has been great indeed.” (4:113)
There are multiple results of fasting (Siyam) in the shape of vigorous duties, moral and spiritual self-discipline and austerity. This reward equips man to swim in the roughest seas of life. It is in this concept that the Qur’an has clearly expressed the act of fasting as a blessing and not a calamity. Allah desires your well being, not your discomfort. He desires you to fast the whole of the month so that you may magnify Him for giving you His guidance, and that you may give thanks.
It is with this spirit of thanksgiving that Eid-ul-Fitr is observed all over the world by Muslim Ummah by offering prayers to Allah, and rejoicing and festivity on the accomplishment of an act of dedication and submission to the Almighty. The Muslim Ummah meditates and pays obeisance to their Lord in congregation, displaying the real spirit of brotherhood, equality and fraternity through the prayers and through the zest of meeting and embracing the Muslim brothers.
On this happy occasion of Eid-ul-Fitr, we should pray to Allah to bless the Muslim Ummah.
We should not forget those who are afflicted with poverty, ignorance, disease and other misfortunes. Charity i.e. the Saddqaha-e-Fitr is obligatory at the end of the fasting month i.e. Ramadan and should be compulsorily paid to the needy by every Muslim of means. The real happiness of Eid lies in sharing our happiness with others. Payment of fitrah to the poor and needy is obligatory. It has to be paid before Eid prayers.
Prescribed Works on Ed-ul-Fitr
The following eleven things have been prescribed to be done on Ed-ul-Fitr;
Alla-u Akbar, Allah-u Akbar
wa-Allah-u Akbar, Allah-u Akbar
Regulations Relating to ‘Eid Prayer
1. If a person misses the ‘Eid prayer, he cannot offer it individually, for the ‘Eid prayer is conditioned upon congregation. Similarly, if the prayer of a person who joined in the congregation is invalidated due to some reason, he cannot offer it later as a missed prayer, nor is it incumbent upon him to do so. However, a few persons who have missed the prayer can get together and offer it if they so desire.
2. There is neither Azan nor Iqamah for the ‘Eid Prayers.
3. Women and the men who cannot offer the ‘Eid Prayers due to some reason, should not offer any voluntary prayer before the ‘Eid prayer’.
1. The Ahl al-Hadith scholars maintain the view that women and children have been enjoined to attend the ‘Eid prayer, because the ‘Eid, like the Friday Prayer, is a special feature of Islam, and the holy Prophet (Pbuh) himself has exhorted the women to go to the ‘Eid ground.
Hadrat Umm’atiyyah has narrated; “The holy Prophet (Pbuh) commanded us that we should take un-married young girls and grown-up women, even the menstruating ones, along with us to the ‘Eid ground. The menstruating women, however, are not to attend the prayer, but should sit aside and keep on pronouncing the Takbir, and join only in the supplications. I asked, ‘O Prophet of Allah! what about those who do not have the over-garment to cover themselves up?” The holy Prophet (Pbuh) replied; The one having an over-garment should take her sister along with her.” (Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi)
4. If a person joins the ‘Eid prayer when the Imam has already pronounced the Takbirs and is reciting the Qur’an, he should pronounce the Takbirs after expressing intention for the prayer. If he joins in the Ruku position, he should pronounce the Takbirs, instead of the usual Tashibh, without raising the hands. If the Imam resumes the standing position before the late-comer has been able to pronounce the required number of Takbirs, he should also resume the standing position after the Imam; the remaining Takbirs are excused.
5. If Imam forgets to pronounce the additional Takbirs and remembers this in the Ruku position, he should pronounce them even in that position instead of resuming the standing position for the purpose; but even if he resumes the standing position, the prayer will not be invalidated.
6. It is undesirable to say a voluntary prayer in the ‘Eid ground or elsewhere before or after the ‘Eid prayer’.
7. If a person has missed the ‘Eid Prayer, he should not say it later as a missed prayer, because the ‘Eid prayer cannot be said later individually.
8. Jurists have agreed that the ‘Eid prayer may be held at more than one place in the city. The people who cannot go out to the ‘Eid ground may offer the prayer in the city according to their convenience.
9. The recitation in the ‘Eid prayer is to be audible.
The Imam should preferably recite Surahs al-A’ala (87) and Al-Ghashiyah (88) or Surahs Qaf (50) and Al-Qamar (54) as was the practice of the holy Prophet (Pbuh) himself.
Regulation Concerning the Eid Sermon
1. The ‘Eid Sermon is Sunnat in nature, but listening to it is wajib (obligatory) for the audience.
2. The sermon should be delivered after the prayer, Hadrat Abu Sa’id says; “The holy Prophet (Pbuh) would first of all offer the Fitr or Adha Prayer; then he would stand up facing the people who kept on sitting in their rows and he would instruct them in religion. Then if he had to send out an army or had to give a special command to the people, he would do so. After this he would return home”. (Bukahri, Muslim)
”I accompanied the Holy Prophet (Pbuh) to the ‘Eid ground. He led the prayer and then gave the sermon. Then he approached the gathering of the women and gave them religious instructions and urged them to practise charity.” (Bukhari)
Zakat ul Fitr is incumbent on every free Muslim who possesses one Sa of dates or barley which is not needed as a basic food for himself or his family for the duration of one day and night. Every free Muslim must pay Zakat ul Fitr for himself, his wife, children, and servants. (One Sa’ equals approximately three kilograms).
The required amount of Zakat ul Fitr is one Sa’ of wheat, rice or corn or similar items considered as basic foods.
Abu Hanifah made it permissible to set aside, as a Zakat ul Fitr, an equivalent value and also said that if the payer pays in wheat, one half of a Sa’ would be sufficient.
Most scholars believe that it is permissible to pay Zakat ul Fitr a day or two before Eid. According to Abu Hanifah, it is permissible to pay it even before Ramadan. Ash-Shafi holds that it is permissible to do so at the beginning of Ramadan. Malik and Ahmad maintain that it is permissible to pay it only one or two days in advance.
The founders of the four accepted Islamic legal schools agree that Zakat ul Fitr is not nullified simply by not paying it on its due date. In such a case, it becomes a debt on the one who is responsible for it until it is paid. They also agree that it is not permissible to delay it until the day of Eid.
The distribution of Zakat ul Fitr is the same as that of Zakat that is, it has to be distributed to the eight groups of beneficiaries mentioned in the ayah. (At Taubah : 60)
Az-Zuhri, Abu Hanifah, Muhammad, and Ibn Subrumah make it permissible to give Zakat ul Fitr to a dhimmi. Allah, the Exalted One says: “Allah allows you to show kindness and deal justly with those who did not war against you on account of religion and did not drive you out of your homes. Lo! Allah loves those who are just.” (at Mumtahanah :8)
Things which make Permissible the Breaking of Saum (Fasting)Breaking Saum becomes permissible only in case of a real need, emergency or danger. When a fast is broken on account of a valid reason Qadha of the fast is obligatory. In such cases only Qadha is necessary, not Kaffarah.
The following are valid reasons which make permissible the breaking of Saum (fast)
1. Sudden sickness which endangers one’s life or which will cause great deterioration of the health if the fast is not broken.
2. When it becomes necessary to take medicine due to having been bitten by a poisonous animal.
3. Extreme thirst which endangers one’s life.
4. A pregnant woman having genuine fear for either her own safety or the safety of the child she is bearing, may break the fast.
5. A woman fearing for the life of the baby she is breast-feeding may break the fast. If her milk dries up as a result of the fast and the baby is dependant on breast-feeding, breaking the Saum is permissible.
6. A Nafl fast may be broken to honour one’s guests. Qadha of the fast has to be made.
Fidyah is the compensation which has to be paid for the Saum which has not been executed on account of permanent disability, etc.
1. The Fidyah amount for each compulsory fast not kept is the same as Sadaqah Fitr, viz. 3-kg wheat or its cash equivalent or feeding a Miskeen (poor person) two full meals for a day.
2. Unlike Kaffarah, it is permissible to distribute the Fidyah amount among several masakeen (poor persons).
3. Fidyah (as well as Kaffarah) monies/food can be given to only such Muslims who are allowed to accept Zakat.
4. If by the time maut (death) approaches, one has not yet paid the Fidyah, it will be waajib to make a wasiyyat (bequest) for the Fidyah to be paid.
5. A person who is allowed to pay Fidyah for undischarged Saum, on recovering his health after having paid the Fidyah, is obliged to fast the number of days he had missed. The Fidyah thus paid will become a Nafl charity.
WasiyyatWasiyyat is a bequest which a person has to make with regard to undischarged Saum.
1. If by the time of the approach of maut (death) a person has not executed his obligation of Qadha Saum or Fidyah, it will be wajib (obligatory) on him/her to make a wasiyyat, declaring that Fidyah for the undischarged Saum obligation be paid on his/her behalf.
2. Once the mayyit (deceased) has made a wasiyyat, it will be waajib on the executors/heirs of the mayyit’s estate to pay the Fidyah from the estate of the deceased, i.e. from one third of the estate.
3. If the Fidyah amount exceeds one third of the estate, payment of the excess from the mayyit’s estate is not permissible. However, if all the adult heirs willingly consent to the payment of the full Fidyah (i.e. including the excess), it will be permissible. The consent of minors is not valid, hence the excess (i.e. more than one third the value of the estate) cannot be paid from the shares of the minor heirs.
By Maulana Ruknuddin
Q. What about praying Tarawih sitting, without excuse?
Q. How many are the Rak’ats of Tarawih?
Q. What about sitting (resting) after each four Raka’ts?
Q. What should not we while sitting after each four Rak’ats?
Q. What about completing the Holy Qur’an in Tarawih?
Q. If people are lazy, is it proper to abandon the practice of completing the Qur’an in Tarawih?
Q. What about the Hafiz who receives wages for reciting the Holy Qur’an in Tarawih?
Q.What about performing the Tarawih prayer twice in the same Mosque?
Q. What about an Imam leading the Tarawih prayer completely at two different places?
Q. What about two Imams leading the same Tarawih?
Q.Is it permissible that the Isha and Witr prayers are led by one Imam and Tarawih is led by another Imam?
Q. If two Rak’ats of Tarawih become spoiled on account of error in recitation etc, should the same portion of the Qur’an be recited again?
Q. At such places where there is no Hafiz available for completing the Qur’an which of the chapters should be recited in Tarawih?
Q. If the Imam leads the Tarawih prayer sitting without excuse while the members of the congregation keep standing, is their prayer valid?
Q. The Imam forgets to sit in Quadah of the Tarawih prayer and remembers it when he has stood for the third Rak’ah, what should he do now?
Q. If the Imam sits in Quadah after the second Rakah of Tarawih and then, forgetfully, stands for the third Raka’ah, what should he do in this case?
Q. The tenth month of the year is Shawwal. Please explain the merits of the month and its special prayers?
Yet another Hadith says: “Whoever fasts six days during Shawwal, will get the merit of fasting the whole year.(Courtesy Minaret)